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Written by Dr. Welsh, Article reviewed and edited by Dr. Fine M.D..
Published on 06 May 2014

What Are Mesenchymal Stem Cells?

Mesenchymal Stem Cells are a unique type of connective tissue that is only partially developed and still has the ability to further specialize into specific forms of connective tissue. The scientific term for cells that have the ability to further evolve into different cell types is Multipotent. You will often find this particular form of Multipotent cell referred to as an MSC. MSCs are also referred to as Marrow Stromal Cells when scientifically appropriate.

These cells have the ability to develop into a number of different types of cells, including fat cells, cartilage cells, and bone cells. As you can imagine, there is a growing amount of interest in cultivating Mesenchymal Stem Cells for use in a number of different medical treatments, especially those related to bone and joint injuries. The ability for MSCs to develop into more complex tissues has been scientifically proven both in a laboratory environment and in animal subjects.

Why Are They Called Mesenchymal Stem Cells?

As researchers learn more about these cells, coming up with an optimally appropriate name became increasingly important:

  • Mesenchyme is a preliminary form of connective tissue which evolves in the embryo stage of development, but this name does not fully meet the needs of MSCs. This tissue forms in the central layer of the embryo, known as the mesoderm.

Further in development, Mesenchyme evolves into both connective and hematopoietic tissue, whereas Mesenchymal Stem Cells can only develop into connective tissue, which proves that Mesenchyme and MSCs are related cells, but different..

  • Stromal Cell refers to a different aspect of MSC function. These cells are a form of connective tissue that provides structural support to a larger cell. Stromal Cell is accurate enough of a term to describe one way that the body uses MSCs, but does not encapsulate the full form and function of the cell.

This is because it has only recently been determined that MSCs have the ability to facilitate the healing of damaged tissue, which necessitates a broader set of naming conventions for the cellular type.

This is why cells that were once almost universally described as Marrow Stromal Cells are now commonly referred to as MSCs by researchers. Now it is clear that these MSCs exist throughout the body in a variety of different forms of tissue including corneal stroma, adult muscle, adipose tissue, and umbilical cord blood.

They even exist in the core of the baby teeth. In spite of their multipotent configuration, they do not have the ability to recreate a whole organ, which is why the new naming convention Multipotent Stromal Cell is becoming more common.

When do Mesenchymal Stem Cells Develop?

The earliest form of MSCs that are manifest during prenatal development can be found in the tissue of the umbilical cord, specifically in the blood of the cord and in Wharton's Jelly. Although MSCs are present in the blood of the umbilical cord, they are present in greater concentrations in Wharton's Jelly, which is also a significant source of stem cells which develop into blood cells of various types, known as Hematopoietic Stem Cells.

MSCs Found in the Umbilical Cord

Today, umbilical cords are simply discarded after a successful pregnancy, but there is growing evidence that these umbilical cords may be a fantastic and safe method of obtaining these primitive MSCs for medical research and treatment.

Mesenchymal Stem Cells Found in the Molars

Another area that is dense in MSCs is the third childhood molar of the lower jawbone. These cells are considered multipotent as of today, but initial research provides evidence that these cells may actually be pluripotent. Mesenchymal Stem Cells develop into a variety of different tissues, including nervous tissues, dental pulp, blood vessels, dentin, and enamel. All told, there are at lease twenty-nine different organs produced from MSCs.

Also, because these teeth can generally be harvested before ten years of age, naturally, with negligible mortality risk, there is a high probability that this source of MSCs will become a significant source of MSCs for treatment, research, and that patients may even be recommended to save them for future potential therapeutic use. MSCs also have the capability to develop into liver cells.

Mesenchymal Stem Cells Found in the Amniotic Fluid

Another concentrated source of MSCs is in the amniotic fluid of the placenta. Evidence suggests that at least one percent of the cells in the amniotic fluid are pluripotent MSCs

Mesenchymal Stem Cells Found in Adipose Fat

After childhood, one of the most concentrated sources of Mesenchymal Stem Cells is in Adipose Fat Tissue. Medical research has shown that in a single gram of adipose fat has more than five hundred times the MSCs as an equivalent amount of aspirated bone marrow. For this reason, there is a lot of research going on right now with regard to using MSCs found in fat cells for the treatment of various medical conditions.

Mesenchymal Stem Cells May be Found Within Peripheral Blood Cells

There is some evidence that Mesenchymal Stem Cells may be found in sufficient concentrations in Peripheral Blood Cells, but this evidence is far from conclusive. A few studies have been able to extract MSCs from these blood cells and been able to foster them in culture, however.

The History of Mesenchymal Blood Cells

A medical researcher named Alexander Maximow was able to single out a particular form of precursor tissue located in the Mesenchyme which had the ability to evolve into a variety of hematopoietic tissue.

Later in the 1960s, two researchers, James Till and Ernest McCulloch, discovered that marrow cells had the ability to essentially clone themselves. In the 1970s, a research team led by A.J. Friedenstein was able to isolate and definitively prove the ability of Stromal Marrow Cells to develop multipotently.

Further study of these cells uncovered that marrow cells had a high level of plasticity and that particular environmental triggers could alter their development into a variety of forms of tissue. For example, if these cells were allowed to develop in the same dish as dexamethasone, inorganic phospate, and Vitamin C, the marrow cells would develop into osteoblasts. On the other hand, exposure to TGF-b would induce the cells to develop into chondrocytes.

Morpology of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

MSCs can be physically described as a central body with a few thin and long processes extending out. The body of the call holds a nucleus which is round, large, and has a conspicuous nucleolus. The nucleus is covered in fine particles known as chromatin, which make it easy to see.

The rest of the cell body is occupied by polyribosomes, mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulum, and limited Golgi apparatus. Each of the cells is skinny and long, are dispersed widely, and the cells are connected by a small number of reticular fibrils.

How Are Mesenchymal Stem Cells Detected

The International Society for Cellular Therapy provides the most established definition for what qualifies as an MSC. They consider MSCs any cell which displays malleable properties under standard conditions and is structured like a fibroblast. There are some medical researchers that even believe that fibroblasts and MSCs are operatively identical.

Also, MSCs have the ability to undergo chondrogenic, adipogenic, and osteogenic differentiation in culture. Finally, cultured Mesenchymal Cells also have a certain set of active and inactive enzymes on their surface.

What is the Capacity for MSCs to Differentiate?

Mesenchymal Stem Cells have a tremendous ability to reproduce themselves while not losing their ability to evolve, but there is no easy way to quantify that capacity. The general method to prove multipotency is for a cell to be able to evolve into neurons, myocytes, chondrocytes, adipocytes, and osteoblasts with sufficient environmental cues. Mesenchymal Stem Cells have the capacity to develop into all of these different types of cells, but it is unclear whether it is possible to create a functioning neuron from an MSC.

The ability for an MSC to develop into a particular form depends upon the individual cell as well as the manner in which the change is produced, whether via mechanical or chemical means, for example. It is also unclear whether differentiation occurs because of an overall capacity to differentiate or the proclivity of certain cells to differentiate in their own capacity.

There is also evidence that the older a donor is when MSCs are contributed, the slower that the cells differentiate and proliferate. There is no definitive evidence regarding whether this is because there are issues in donated MSCs or a lower concentration of MSCs in a culture.

Effects of Mesenchymal Stem Cells on the Immune System

Research has shown that in human beings, MSCs block the function of T-Cells and dendritic cells. They also release cytokynes, which suppress immune response in their immediate environment. These cells alter immune function more vigorously in an area where inflammation is prominent.

In other situations, however, studies have shown that these effects are not universal and can be altered by other extenuating circumstances. Because each isolated culture of MSCs have their own unique configuration, the cell cultures often react in different ways to the same stimulus.

The Culturing of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

There are a number of methods to develop MSC cultures, but the most prominent is taking ficoll-purified bone marrow or unadulterated bone marrow and placing the mononuclear cells straight into flasks or culture plates. After one to two days, MSCs will stick to the specialized plastic, but hematopoietic cells and red blood cells will not. There is some evidence that this technique is not a perfect method, and at least some MSCs do not adhere in the given time frame, if at all.

How Are Mesenchymal Stem Cells Related to Cancer?

MSC proliferation is involved in many forms of cancer, especially those which impact the bone marrow. Hematological Cancers most commonly impact the function of MSCs.

What Are the Medical Uses for Mesenchymal Stem Cells

There are methods currently by which MSCs can be mobilized and activated if necessary. Unfortunately, using today's medical methods, there is a limited efficiency. For example, muscles recover quite slowly from injury because of this limited mobilization. There is promising research which suggests that there may be scientific methods to speed up this healing process.

In recent history, there have been a number of medical success stories involving the transplantation of MSCs directly into the blood stream in medical conditions such as sepsis, but in many of these cases, alternative forms of treatment have been found to be more effective, especially in the case of conditions related to peripheral tissues.

The most effective form of MSC administration appears to be to distribute the cells directly to the area which requires rehabilitation. When delivered directly to the blood stream, the lungs absorb many of the MSCs, limiting the capacity of the treatment. MSCs have been used frequently in an orthopedic environment, but these treatments need more rigorous and widespread use before their effectiveness can be fully determined.

One physician, Dr. Wakitani, has released a set of five case studies in which he treated five defective knees by implanting MSCs and quantified the effectiveness of the treatment.

Effectiveness of Cryogenically Preserved MSCs

Researchers have shown that MSCs are highly receptive to cryogenic freezing, but slowly regain their efficacy after they've been thawed, meaning that they should be allowed to thaw and propagate before implantation for maximum effectiveness. Many clinical studies have failed explicitly because MSCs were implanted directly after they were thawed. By allowing the cells to propagate after thawing, the cells will fully recover from being frozen, with the cells being just as useful as if they were never frozen.


Written by Dr. Welsh, Article reviewed and edited by Dr. Fine M.D..
Published on 03 July 2013

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Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone Shown to Increase Cognitive Health

Regular injections of Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone have been clinically shown to boost cognitive capacity for both mildly impaired patients and perfectly healthy older individuals.

GH-RH Alzheimer's Treatment

In a recent clinical trial, both healthy and slightly impaired participants were injected with GH-RH in an attempt to quantify the potential cognitive benefits of the hormone. The study took place over the course of 5 months, and was aggressively controlled and randomized in order to ensure the quality of the results. Subjects that were treated with GH-RH were found to have significantly improved mental performance in comparison to recipients of placebo. The primary researcher in this study was Dr. Laura Baker, representative of the U. Washington Medical School. The study was recently released in the Archives of Neurology.

Baker and her associates were able to pinpoint the general areas of the mind which receive the most promising benefits of GH-RH Hormone Therapy. Improved mental faculties were the result of an overall increase in the patients' ability to organize, prioritize, and execute mental processes. The primary area which seemed to improve was verbal but the treatment did not seem to have a beneficial affect upon the patients' ability to remember, visually.

GH-RH, HGH, and IGF-1

Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone is one of the most important hormones released by the hypothalamus. GH-RH is responsible for the proper release of Human Growth Hormone by the pituitary, which has a stimulative and restorative effect upon the body in numerous different ways. Although we have known how HGH affects metabolic properties regarding fat and muscle in the body, we are just beginning to more fully comprehend how Human Growth Hormone affects the brain and other complex organs.

After Human Growth Hormone is secreted as a result of GH-RH stimulation, HGH cycles through the blood stream to the liver, where it is processed into IGF-1 and other important hormones known as Growth Factors. Although most HGH is converted into IGF-1, HGH does have direct stimulative affects on many tissues on its own.

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Growth Hormones Have a Powerful Effect Upon the Brain

In the brain, GH-RH, IGF-1, and HGH all have beneficial effects upon the health of brain tissue. No where does this seem more clear than in the case of patients suffering from Alzheimer's. As our knowledge of this dreaded disease becomes more fully fleshed out, more and more evidence points to the hypothesis that Alzheimer's could be considered a third form of diabetes, a type of metabolism disorder that effects not the blood sugar, but the composition of the brain itself.

Alzheimer's Correlated with IGF-1 Deficiency

There is growing evidence that Alzheimer's is correlated with decreased levels of these three important and interconnected hormones. New research suggests that it is possible to restore hormone balance with Recombinant Hormones that are functionally identical to GH-RH such as Sermorelin and Tesamorelin, in order to reduce the risk of cognitive decline and safeguard mental capacity in patients that are either at high risk of Alzheimer's, or are experiencing mild symptoms of the disorder.

Alzheimer's GH-RH Study Specifics

In order to explore the hypothesis, Baker and her associates gathered a group of 152 men and women between the ages of fifty-five and eighty-seven. Sixty-six of these patients were already experiencing mild symptoms of cognitive decline. One set of patients received Tesamorelin Injections, while the second group received imitation placebo injections. All shots were delivered subcutaneously just beneath the skin.

The injection period was designed to last a total of twenty weeks. In the end, 137 of the subjects completed the study, seventy-six control patients, and sixty-one experimental patients. At the beginning of the study, patients underwent cognitive examination, and changes in cognitive ability were measured at three different intervals during and after the study.

The cognitive tests administered were normal assessments of cognitive capacity. After Tesamorelin injections began, Cognition was evaluated after ten weeks, after twenty weeks, and then ten weeks after GH-RH Injection Therapy ceased. At the same time that cognitive evaluations took place, researchers also conducted blood diagnostics in order to find out the level of each of the three considered hormones (IGF-1, GH-RH, and HGH) that was circulating through the blood stream.

GH-RH Benefits both the Healthy Mind and the Cognitively Impaired Mind

As they examined the data, Baker and her fellow researchers discovered that Tesamorelin had the capacity to increase serum levels of IGF-1 by an average of 2.17 times the level active in the blood stream before treatment. This finding was well within the range of significance, and restored the patients' IGF-1 Levels to physiologically normal volume. This proved that the Tesamorelin had a physiologically appropriate affect on the hormone balance of the patients.

After evaluating the physiological expectations of therapy, the researchers then statistically evaluated the cognitive benefits of therapy. All but one of the 152 patients were evaluated cognitively, and signs of mental improvement in the experimental group were found to be significant. Interestingly enough, the increase in cognitive capacity benefited both the control group and the experimental group.

At the end of the study period, the 137 patients that finished the trial were evaluated in the same manner. Cognitive testing showed an even clearer statistical improvement after a full twenty weeks of treatment.

Tesamorelin GH-RH was shown to produce benefits in multiple aspects of physiological health. As a whole, the experimental group experienced an overall increase in their overall executive ability, while also experiencing significant gains in their ability to conceive of language and abstraction, but the GH-RH Replacement did not seem to affect visual representative memory.

GH-RH Burns Fat, Builds Muscles, and Builds Strong Minds

Outside of mental evaluation, GH-RH Injections also burned fat and increased muscle mass, leading to a reduction in fat-muscle ratio of 7.4% in all patients injected with GH-RH. Among patients exhibiting signs of cognitive decline, GH-RH Administration boosted fasting insulin by thirty-five percent. This increase was well within the healthy range of insulin production, however.

GH-RH Side-Effects Minor

Most negative events that occurred during the study were minor in nature, but they did occur at a higher rate among patients receiving Tesamorelin. Sixty-eight percent of experimental patients experienced at least some minor issue during treatment, whereas the placebo group only experienced these problems thirty-six percent of the time.

Large Scale GH-RH Trial Coming Soon

Although the results of this study are incredibly promising, the researchers are quick to remind their audience that a larger study is needed in order to more fully explore causality, although the treatment is clearly beneficial. They say that longer and bigger studies are necessary in order to more fully confirm the ability of GH-RH to beneficially safeguard mental health into old age.

GH-RH Hormone Replacement Therapy May Be Best Hope for Alzheimer's Care

This study shows that GH-RH injections have the capacity to increase cognitive ability in both the mentally healthy and those experiencing mild cognitive decline as a result of early Alzheimer's or other neurological conditions. GH-RH Research may very well be the beginning of a new era of Alzheimer's treatment that can improve health outcomes and extend quality of life and mental acuity much longer than was previously possible for these patients.

Alzheimer's is one of the most devastating and cognitively incapacitating diseases in the world, and the quicker we improve treatment options, the quicker that countless patients across the globe can experience a life less addled by the debilitating disease.


Written by Dr. Welsh, Article reviewed and edited by Dr. Fine M.D..
Published on 11 June 2015

Stem Cells and the Future of Health Care

Although the medical field of Stem Cell Research is in its infancy, its potential for improving health care around the world is unprecedented. In the next generation of medicine, there is no doubt that new procedures and methodologies utilizing stem cells will change the way that people all across America and the globe live.

What is a Stem Cell?

Stem cells are literally the building blocks of a human being. Stem cells are cells which contain the genetic code to build something larger than themselves. When a human being is conceived, it begins as a microscopic ball of these stem cells. Over time, these cells differentiate and develop into the various cells, tissues, and organs that an organism must have to survive.

By investing our time and energy in researching stem cells, we are able to observe how a human is formed one tiny step at a time. Research involving Stem Cells and how to utilize them effectively in a medical environment will eventually change the way that physicians and surgeons practice medicine and conduct patient care.

Although human beings have an amazing capacity for regeneration, there are limitations to the ways in which an adult stem cell can repair injured tissue or organs. For example, neurons have an extremely limited capacity to heal and regenerate. There is evidence that stem cells have the ability to regenerate tissue in ways that are simply impossible for adult cells, because of their immature state.

Because of the unique nature of stem cells, in the future, the potential for stem cells to be utilized in order to repair or replace damaged organs and tissues has the ability to significantly alter the way that we treat everything from cancer to arthritis.

How Can Stem Cell Research Improve our Lives?

There are numerous ways in which Stem Cells may improve the way that we practice medicine. A number of medical afflictions have the terrible capacity to destroy tissue to an extent that regrowth and rehabilitation is not possible. By manipulating Stem Cells, it will likely be possible to stimulate the regrowth of tissues and organs like the liver or kidneys that the body no longer has the ability to repair on its own. There is even potential that sometime in the future, stem cells may be used to completely regrow new organs for transplantation, vastly reducing the risk of rejection and reducing the need to wait on donor organs.

Researchers hypothesize that numerous diseases which are considered incurable today will likely find their cure via Stem Cell Research. The benefits of Stem Cell Replacement can potentially lead to amazing changes in the way that we treat cancer, arthritis, stroke, heart disease, spinal cord damage, diabetes, burns, and even neurological disorders such as Parkinson's Disease and Alzheimer's.

In addition to the potential benefits provided by Stem Cell Treatments themselves, Stem Cells are currently being used in order to foster an enhanced understanding of how our genetics contribute to the initial stages of cellular development. By studying this initial stage of development at a cellular level, we will be able to more fully realize exactly how certain cells and cellular constructs develop improperly, contributing to both birth defects and cancer.

Through a more complete understanding of Stem Cell Replication and Differentiation, medical researchers will gain vital insights as to how to eliminate the spread of many of these diseases of early development.

What are the Goals of Modern Stem Cell Research?

At this stage in Stem Cell Research, physicians and researchers are looking to enhance the effectiveness of current medical treatments and find ways to treat patients while diminishing the invasive nature of many forms of current treatment.

Although ideally, medical professionals would like to use the stem cells of the patient, current Stem Cell Treatments are generally administered using cells received from a donor. Although these cells still have the potential to provide significant benefits, the ideal stem cells would come from the patient being treated. Even with modern techniques to prevent rejection, there is still the potential that the immune system of the patient will reject the donor stem cells.

As we learn more about Adult Stem Cells, we will eventually be able to treat a patient with his or her own stem cells. By using a patient's own stem cells, the risk of rejection drops significantly, and may even be removed completely. There are a number of hypotheses regarding how this goal may be achieved:

  • Harvesting adult stem cells from an individual and alter them in a laboratory environment so that they develop into a certain type of tissue. After the tissue forms and develops, it could be transplanted to a target area of the body in need of treatment, where it could restore function lost through tissue damage.

  • A technique known as Therapeutic Cloning could be used in order to create embryos full of immature stem cells which would be identical to those of the individual.

  • A third technique to use Stem Cells for therapeutic advantage would be to encourage stem cells contained within the body naturally to perform healing functions. One scientific hypothesis is that it may be possible to design medications which would encourage a certain form of stem cell to multiply therapeutically within the patient. This form of treatment would reduce the need to go under the knife in order to gain the therapeutic benefit of stem cell therapy.

    At face value, the potential benefits of Stem Cell Treatment seem endless. Would it not be possible to utilize stem cells to heal or replace damaged or destroyed tissue within the patient? In order to reveal the true healing capacity of Stem Cell Treatment, there are a number of questions which must be answered first:

    How Effective will Stem Cell Treatments be Long-Term?

    One of the primary reasons that we grow older is because our cells themselves age for a variety of reasons. An important question that must be answered is if Adult Stem Cell Treatments will malfunction or lose efficiency faster than cells naturally formed by the human body. There is limited evidence regarding the long-term potential of Stem Cell Therapy.

    What can we do to make sure that Stem Cell Treatments don't develop into uncontrolled tumors?

    Stem Cells harvested from embryos are genetically designed to divide repeatedly and not develop differentiation. In order for Stem Cell Treatment to be effective,, scientists have to be able to manipulate the stem cells into a desired form of differentiation.

    If the goal of differentiation is not reached, this has the potential to lead to tumor formation, because the embryo will continue to divide and flood its immediate area with more undifferentiated cells. In order for Embryonic Stem Cells to be an effective treatment, they must be effectively and tightly controlled.

    In both adult and embryonic stem cells, if the genes within the cells are not guided and regulated properly, it may lead to tumor development. There are questions regarding how stem cells will act when they have been active in a laboratory environment before transplantation. There is a possibility that these cells may differentiate in a different way than stem cells that are harvested directly from a patient.

    What would cause this?

    The majority of cells in the human physiology are not designed for infinite revision, and they definitely aren't designed to develop in a sterile laboratory environment. Numerous types of tissue, such as skin cells and blood cells, have particular biological processes which control differentiation, division, and apoptosis after a certain length of time. These cues are the result of biological signals received from the entire environment of an organ or organism.

    In order for cells to divide indefinitely in a laboratory environment, the process of normal development must be stalled. The way that scientists achieve this form of artificial growth is to house the cells in an solution which contains the nutrients vital for their survival as well as proteins which encourage their reproduction. In the majority of these environments, many of the developmental signals that exist in a living environment do not exist in the lab.

    Evidence shows that some kinds of cells don't react as well to this type of environment as others. A certain percentage of the cells will not survive, and the cells which are more effectively designed to withstand non-finite growth will propagate.

    After a certain number of divisions in vitro, the cells which remain could hypothetically evolve so much that they no longer react effectively to the normal signals provided by its natural physiological ecosystem. There are even theories that keeping stem cells in vitro for an extended period of time could even alter the genetic structure of the cells. These changes could encourage the development of tumorous growths.

    Recreating the body's natural ecosystem within a lab is one of the most difficult aspects of stem cell research. It is actually one of the primary goals of global stem cell research across the globe. In order for stem cell treatments to be maximally effective, we will have to learn how to store and develop stem cells in an environment which closely mimics that of its location within our body.

    Importance of the Nanog Protein

    There are important studies and advances in recent years which give hope that we can extend the usefulness of stem cells, even those that have remained in vitro for an extended period of time. Recently, Stem Cell Researchers have discovered exactly how stem cells can persist in their undifferentiated state for an infinite period of time.

    The study was endowed by a charity known as the Wellcome Trust, which specializes in providing independent funding to novel research regarding the enhancement of human and animal life and longevity. Researchers have discovered a unique protein which has the ability to preserve non-differentiated stem cells. Another name for these cells are Pluripotent Stemcells. This means that the stem cells have the ability to evolve into a multitude of different types of tissue.

    Although scientists for years have suspected that Nanog played a special role in the control of differentiation, researchers from Cambridge have discovered that Nanog is actually the mechanism which controls the development and differentiation of stem cells.

    By enhancing scientific knowledge regarding Nanog, researchers are able to more fully understand the mechanisms by which stem cells function, and the more that we understand stem cells, the more safely that we will be able to use them for more and greater medical treatments.

    The Isolation of the Nanog Protein

    Nanog had been previously hypothesized, but was not isolated until a decade ago, when it was discovered to play a significant role in the maintenance of pluripotency. Although researchers recognized its importance, they could not yet pinpoint exactly how Nanog prevented differentiation in stem cells.

    In this Cambridge Study, scientists were able to demonstrate that Nanog is the lynchpin of a complex balance of protein and gene maintenance which maintains the stem cells in the pluripotent stage.

    Without the presence of Nanog, Stem Cells cannot remain indefinitely undifferentiated. Also, without the influence of Nanog, it is impossible to recalibrate fully developed cells to return to a state of pluripotence. the specific period in which Nanog must be present is during the last stage of reprogramming. Without the presence of Nanog, the stem cell gets locked in a state of partial development.

    One medical representative from the Wellcome Trust Center, Doctor Silva, explains that the medical research demonstrates that Nanog has the specific power to maintain the property on non-differentiation indefinitely.

    In order to more fully recognize the influence of Nanog, researchers must study more deeply into the function of Nanog in order to determine exactly how the protein influences early human development during the embryonic phase.

    The Importance of Understanding Pluripotency

    In order to expand the usefulness of Stem Cell Therapies to a greater variety of potential treatments, it is vital to understand exactly how stem cells thrive in a pluripotent state as well as how they differentiate. Nanog research is an important gateway into the future of Stem Cell Utilization.

    By understanding the pluripotent nature of stem cells, researchers hope to one day be able to convert adult cells back into their early forms so that they can be used in order to treat a variety of medical conditions more effectively and more cheaply than we ever thought possible. Rather than be stuck with limited sources of stem cells, such as those acquired from donors, or those acquired from embryonic stem cells, scientists could revert adult cells into embryonic stem cells, then convert them into other vitally needed types of tissue, such as nerve cells or kidney cells.

    If scientists are able to make these hypotheses realities, then numerous chronic diseases like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's could be treated more effectively, or even one day completely cured.

    With the success of this research, we may one day be able to live far longer than we ever thought imaginable.

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